您的当前位置 : 首页 > 文明研究 > 标准在质量保证中的作用

标准在质量保证中的作用

发布时间:2011/9/27 18:24:20|来源:|分享到:
字体:

各位好,感谢邀请我参与本次北京市质量技术监督局发起的研讨会。我将在今天的演讲中向各位介绍标准化在质量保证中的重要作用,但在此之前,请允许我对BSI的英国标准部做一个简要介绍。

BSI英国标准部是世界上第一个国家标准化机构,如今拥有27000项标准,并且每年还制定约2000项标准。在加快正式标准制定的同时,BSI还通过非正式的快速通道的方式提供范围不断扩大的产品和服务。上述两种方式所能取得成绩都依赖于利益相关方的积极参与,这些利益相关方来自企业、贸易协会、学术界、消费者、政府部门和区域性开发机构。

BSI是多个正式国际标准化组织的一个重要成员,ISO/IEC,以及,在欧洲,是CEN/ CENELEC231个技术委员会的秘书处承担组织,并且参与了主要的管理标准工作组。各位也许知道,BSI与国家标准委(SAC)以及中国的其它标准化机构进行着持续的合作。 BSI 还与日本、韩国和印度的标准化机构签署过联合合作协议。

各位也许还知道BSI最近负责的一些标准项目。11月我们发布了BS 25999-2,《业务持续管理规范》,以及BS 8901《持续事件管理体系规范使用指南》。但可能BSI在标准化方面最有声誉的领域还是质量标准。事实上,BSI就是质量管理标准的代名词。

产品质量管理早期的行为可以追溯到19世纪英国工业革命的时候,但是直到第一次世界大战期间,随着生产的复杂程度不断提高,以及计件工作方式的引入,成为了重视质量检验的催化剂。到第二次世界大战时,工业化生产的系统化确保了工业界开展质量保证和管理工作。

如今,我们生活的现实环境是,消费者对产品的期望高过任何时候,而同时竞争又非常残酷。这样,生产企业能够提供最好质量的产品和服务就变得至关重要了。

在过去的30多年间,BSI英国标准部一直处于质量管理体系制定的最前沿。BSI领先于各国制定了最初始的质量管理体系标准BS 5750,该标准体系不断发展并被国际标准化组织采用,演变为ISO 9000。如今,在170多个国家和地区颁发了约900000ISO 90012000认证证书。2006年,中国颁发了160000ISO 90012000认证证书而处于世界领先位置。

BS EN ISO 90012000确定了8条质量管理的原则,这些原则可以供高层管理者使用,引领组织机构改善其工作成绩:

 持续改进;

 以消费者为中心;

 以事实为基础的决策制定;

 人的参与;

 领导能;

 与供应商的互惠关系;

 过程方法;

 管理的系统方法。

ISO 90012000的一个基本目标是制定一套质量管理体系标准,使之能完全地融合进企业的日常运行中去。该标准可以避免体系脱离于组织机构的业务实践过程而实施,进而为管理组织机构创建一种更具逻辑性和实效性的方法。

最近由BSI管理体系部做的一项调查显示,实施ISO 9000得到的主要效益包括完善内部工作程序、改进质量以及改善企业形象。但是,研究还显示,如果组织机构不能认识到这种效益并对自身的质量管理工作逐渐骄傲自满,则实施ISO 9001所带来的关键效益将逐步衰减。

为帮助组织机构增强其体系,使之超过传统的ISO 9001体系,BSI管理体系部发明了一种新的叫BenchMark的方法。BenchMark使用了ISO 90018项管理原则,并将之应用到组织机构的治理方法中,该方法需要最高管理层和所有员工的参与。通过计算机模型确定组织机构的长处、弱点以及改进的机会。使用该结果,与组织机构共同确定风险,并建议如何对其进行控制,最终实现质量管理中的持续改进。

将于2009年到期的ISO 9004的修订版,也关注于持续成功。它将是9001的伴生标准的大规模改进版,将由《业绩改进指南》改变为《持续成功指南-质量管理方法》

ISO 90012008年版主要将修订集中在改进ISO 9001ISO 14001的兼容性上,这有利于希望将管理体系进行整合的组织机构。ISO 140011996年作为国际标准而引入实施,评估组织机构的环境管理体系。于是乎,它与ISO 9000具有许多相似点,而后者已经成为国际认可的质量保证措施。一项由环境管理与评估学会于2004年开展的调查显示,超过三分之二的被调查组织机构相信使用环境管理体系能提供实现显著环境效果改善的基础,如果不实施环境管理体系则这样的改进将不可能实现

对实施ISO 9000认证对组织机构影响效果的激烈争论已经持续了10年之久。尽管该争论还远没有定论,但对进行了认证的组织机构和没有认证的机构间的业绩改善情况已经开展了数年的对比研究。许多研究得出的结论是,取得认证的企业比没有认证的企业表现更好,并能创造更好的经济效益,还有证据显示认证还可以在企业运营领域形成涓滴效应(trickle-down results)。

越来越多的组织机构进行ISO 9001认证,显示了标准化在质量保证中的中心作用。质量管理是标准化的一个关键领域,并且可以与其他管理体系,如ISO 14001,同时实施,在许多领域内改善最佳实践。


 

 

Workshop on Quality, Standards, Product Brand and Commercial Civilization,

 

Role of Standards in Quality Assurance

by Mike Low to the Beijing Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision

 


Good morning and thank you for inviting me to present to this workshop of the Beijing

Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision. I would like to talk to you today about the importance of tandardization in quality assurance but before I begin I will give you a brief introduction to BSI British Standards.

BSI British Standards was the world’s first national standards body and today has a portfolio of 27,000 standards, developing a further 2000 standards every year. As well as the facilitation of formal standards development, BSI offers an expanding range of informal ‘fast track’ products and services. Both areas of work are dependent on productive stakeholder engagement with business, trade associations, academics, consumers, government departments and regional development agencies.

BSI is a key player in the formal international standardizing bodies, ISO/IEC and, in Europe, in CEN/ CENELEC with 231 committee secretariats and positions on major management groupings. You will be aware of the ongoing cooperation between BSI and SAC and other standardization bodies in China. BSI also has joint cooperation agreements with standardization bodies in Japan, Korea and India.

Some of you may know of the standards BSI has been responsible for recently. In November we published BS 25999-2, Specification for Business Continuity Management, and BS 8901, Specification for a Sustainable Event Management System with Guidance for Use. But perhaps the area that BSI is best known for internationally is quality. In fact, BSI is synonymous with quality management standards.

Early efforts to manage quality of products can be seen as far back as the Industrial Revolution in the UK in the nineteenth century but it was the increasingly complex production and introduction of piece work during the First World War which really acted as a catalyst for quality inspection. By the Second World War a systematic approach to industrial manufacture ensured that quality assurance and management were embedded in industry.

Today we live in a world where customers’ expectations are higher than ever and where competition is fierce. It is essential that organizations provide products and services of the highest quality.

For the last 30 years BSI British Standards has been at the forefront of quality management system development. BSI pioneered the development of the original quality management system, BS 5750, which was progressed and adopted by the International Organization for Standardisation into ISO 9000. Today, almost 900,000 ISO 9001:2000 certificates have been issued in 170 countries and economies. In 2006, China was leading the way in ISO 9001:2000 certifications with over 160,000 certificates issued.

BS EN ISO 9001:2000 identifies the eight quality management principles that can be used by senior managers to lead the organization towards improved performance:

• Continual improvement

• Customer focus

• Factual approach to decision-making

• Involvement of people

• Leadership

• Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

• Process approach

• Systems approach to management.

One of the fundamental purposes of ISO 9001:2000 is to enable the development of a quality management system that is fully integrated into the normal operations of the business. This standard avoids the application of systems that are separate from an organization’s business processes, thereby creating a more logical and effective approach to managing an organization.

A recent survey carried out by BSI Management Systems found that key benefits gained from implementing ISO 9000 included improved internal procedures, quality improvements and improved corporate image. However, studies have also found that ISO 9001 seems to bring key benefits which decline later if organizations fail to recognize the benefits and grow complacent with respect to quality management.

To help organizations enhance their systems over and above the conventional ISO 9001 system BSI Management Systems has developed a methodology called BenchMark.

BenchMark takes the eight management principles of ISO 9001 and applies these to the corporate approach of the organization involving the top management team and potentially all staff. A computer model identifies an organization’s strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for improvement. The results are used to work with the organization to identify risks and suggest how these might be controlled so that continual improvement in quality management can be achieved.

A revised version of ISO 9004, due in 2009, also focuses on sustainable success. This will be a wholesale revision of 9001's companion standard, changing from: “Guidance on performance improvement" to “Guidance on sustainable success, a quality management approach".

Amendments made to the 2008 edition of ISO 9001 will focus on improving the compatibility of ISO 9001 with ISO 14001 for organizations wanting to integrate their management systems. ISO 14001 was introduced in 1996 as an international standard to evaluate an organization's environmental management systems. As such, it has similarities with ISO 9000 which is internationally recognised as the premier quality assurance award. A 2004 survey of the benefits of ISO 14001 certification carried out by the Institute for Environmental Management and Assessment found that over two thirds of organizations believed that using an environmental management system provided ‘the basis for achieving significant environmental performance improvement that otherwise wouldn’t have been achieved’.

The debate about the impact of ISO 9000 certification on an organization has been raging for ten years. Although the debate is far from resolved it has led to comparison studies of the performance of organizations that chose to certify with those that did not over several years. Many studies have concluded that certified companies outperform non-certified companies and as well as producing economic benefits there is evidence to suggest that certification also produces many trickle-down results to operational areas.

The increasing number of organizations certifying to ISO 9001 demonstrates the central role of standardization in quality assurance. Quality management is a key area of standardization and one which can be applied in conjunction with other management systems, such as ISO 14001, to develop best practice in a range of areas.

分享到微博或其他平台:

相关文章